Tourette syndrome and tic disorders are a neurodevelopmental disorder found in approximately 1% of 5–18 years old, with the expression in males five times more common than females. The tics, which are repetitive, can occur many times throughout the day, and can have both stereotyped movements and/or short vocalizations. Tic disorders may cause physical pain or cause injury due to their strong and repetitive nature. Tic disorders can also increase emotional stress from unwanted attention in social settings. Tics can affect social engagements including schooling and opportunities for employment and thus result in low self-esteem, mood and anxiety disorders, and poor academic performance.
Tic disorders are often found present in children diagnosed with PANDAS/PANS and improve as clinically appropriate treatment is applied. Evaluation of immune disorders as a cause of tics should include infections, toxins, autoimmunity, and allergens. Additional evidence supports brain stimulation techniques for a variety of neurological disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, and even Autism. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is also reported in literature and case studies to have potential in reducing excessive brain activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) leading to a reduction in symptoms. Larger scale studies are needed to determine the maintenance of symptom improvement over time, but due to its generally safety and flexibility with home use it is worth considering as an early intervention. tDCS sessions last 20 minutes are easily implemented in a flexible at home therapy that is very safe and convenient.