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Dementia, Alzheimer's & tDCS

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease associated with aging with the core symptom presenting with progressive memory loss. As the disease progresses patients may also experience other cognitive concerns such as aphasia, reduced executive function, as well as anxiety, depression, irritability, and hallucinations. Subjective and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are states between normal aging and dementia and are considered the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Current studies show dementia to be 100% preventable if treated in the Subjective state and 85% preventable and reversible in mild cognitive impairment when following integrative protocols. The number of dementia patients is increasing, but available prescription cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have proven ineffective in preventing or reversing the normal progression of cognitive decline. There is increasing evidence that transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) may be an effective alternative therapy leading to increased cortical excitability and neuroplasticity improving cognitive ability. Studies of just a few weeks show improvement in variables of cognition and memory with some studies reporting benefits with daily use over a 6 month period. tDCS is a tool that is showing benefit on its own but also can be paired with brain photobiomodulation, HBOT, and neurofeedback to optimize therapeutic response.

Enhance Neurological Repair & Regeneration

  • Reduces Inflammation in the Brain
  • Promotes Generation of New Tissue
  • Improves Neuroplasticity

Improve Overall Function

  • Advances Cognitive Function
  • Improves Gross/Fine Motor Skills
  • Decreases time for complete recovery
  • Increases chances for optimal recovery

REFERENCE

  1. Hui-Zhong Wen et al; Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation alleviates cognitive impairment in an APP/PS1 model of Alzheimer’s disease in the preclinical stage. Neural Regen Res. 2022 Oct; 17(10): 2278–2285. Published online 2022 Feb 28. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.337053.PMID: 35259850. PMCID: PMC9083165
  2. Jiajie Chen et al; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Cognitive Function in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early/Mid Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Brain Sci. 2022 May; 12(5): 562.Published online 2022 Apr 27. doi: 10.3390/brainsci12050562. PMID: 35624949. PMCID: PMC9138792
  3. Alireza Majdi et al; A systematic review and meta-analysis of transcranial direct-current stimulation effects on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Mol Psychiatry. 2022 Apr;27(4):2000-2009. doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01444-7. Epub 2022 Feb. PMID: 35115703
  4. Vrinda Saxena et al; Role of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-analysis of Effects, Adherence and Adverse Effects. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2021 Nov 30; 19(4): 589–599. Published online 2021 Nov 30. doi: 10.9758/cpn.2021.19.4.589. PMID: 34690114. PMCID: PMC8553534
  5. Mathieu Figeys et al; Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Cognitive Performance and Cerebral Oxygen Hemodynamics: A Systematic Review. Front Hum Neurosci. 2021; 15: 623315. Published online 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2021.623315.PMID: 33897392. PMCID: PMC8058208
  6. Silke Coemans et al; A Systematic Review of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Methodological Considerations. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021; 13: 710818. Published online 2021 Oct 7. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2021.710818. PMID: 34690737. PMCID: PMC8530184
  7. Wang-In Kim et al; Cognitive Function Improvement in Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Following Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Brain Sci. 2020 Aug; 10(8): 547.Published online 2020 Aug 12. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10080547. PMID: 32806774. PMCID: PMC7464566
  8. Jooyeon Jamie Im et al; Effects of 6-month at-home transcranial direct current stimulation on cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Stimul. 2019 Sep-Oct;12(5):1222-1228. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2019.06.003. Epub 2019 Jun 4. PMID: 31196835.  PMCID: PMC6703942
  9. Maria Cotelli et al; Enhancing theory of mind in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with transcranial direct current stimulation. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2018 Dec;18(6):1065-1075. doi: 10.3758/s13415-018-0622-4. PMID: 29995274.
  10. Liciane Fernandes Medeiros et al; Neurobiological Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Review. Front Psychiatry. 2012; 3: 110. Published online 2012 Dec 28. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00110. PMID: 23293607. PMCID: PMC3531595

Study: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Cognitive Function in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early/Mid Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) i a non-invasive brain stimulation which is considered to have the potential to improve cognitive impairment in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, previous studies have been controversial on the therapeutic effect of tDCS. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of tDCS on cognitive impairment in patients with MCI and mild-to-moderate AD. Five databases, namely PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library, were searched with relative terms to extract the cognitive function changes measured by an objective cognitive scale in the included studies. The meta-analysis results showed that, compared with sham tDCS treatment, the overall cognitive function of patients with AD and MCI was significantly improved (weighted mean difference = 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.66; p = 0.004) after tDCS treatment, but the behavioral symptoms, recognition memory function, attention and executive function were not significantly improved. The subgroup analysis showed that the treatment would be more efficacious if the temporal-lobe-related brain areas were stimulated, the number of stimulations was greater than or equal to 10 and the current density was 2.5 mA/cm2. Among them, AD patients benefited more than MCI patients. No cognitive improvement was observed in patients with MCI or AD at different follow-up times after treatment. Our meta-analysis provided important evidence for the cognitive enhancement of tDCS in patients with MCI and mild-to-moderate AD and discussed its underlying mechanisms.

REFERENCE

  1. Jiajie Chen et al; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Cognitive Function in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early/Mid Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Brain Sci. 2022 May; 12(5): 562.Published online 2022 Apr 27. doi: 10.3390/brainsci12050562. PMID: 35624949. PMCID: PMC9138792

These statements have not been evaluated or approved by the FDA. All of the statements made on this document are not anecdotal and have been taken directly from clinical data.