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ADHD & tDCS

ADHD stands out as the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and/or reduction of sustained attention associated with distractibility, reduced attention, and working memory impairments. ADHD is thought to result from functional impairments of the prefrontal cortex and its associated neural networks. Studies demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of stimulant medications but side effects are common with long term benefits in question. In this context, many other novel therapeutic strategies are currently under investigation for ADHD. 

One group of studies demonstrates transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a promising method for altering cortical excitability. By using low-intensity electrical stimulation tDCS modulates targeted brain regions like the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to increase or decrease excitability of the neural tissue. Reported effects of tDCS include improved cognition related to response inhibition, working memory, attention, and cognitive flexibility with reduction in the clinical symptoms of impulsivity and inattention. There are no serious or adverse reports resulting from treatment with tDCS in adults or children. Overall, tDCS seems to be a promising method for improving ADHD deficits. tDCS sessions last 20 minutes are easily implemented in a flexible at home therapy that is very safe and convenient.

Enhance Neurological Repair & Regeneration

  • Reduces Inflammation in the Brain
  • Promotes Generation of New Tissue
  • Improves Neuroplasticity

Improve Overall Function

  • Advances Cognitive Function
  • Improves Gross/Fine Motor Skills
  • Decreases time for complete recovery
  • Increases chances for optimal recovery

REFERENCE

    1. Beatriz Sousa et al; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as an Approach to Mitigate Neurodevelopmental Disorders Affecting Excitation/Inhibition Balance: Focus on Autism Spectrum Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Clin Med. 2022 May; 11(10): 2839. Published online 2022 May 18. doi: 10.3390/jcm11102839PMID: 35628965. PMCID: PMC9143428
    2. Qing Li et al; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Front Behav Neurosci. 2022; 16: 893955. Published online 2022 May 25. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2022.893955. PMID: 35711693. PMCID: PMC9195619
    3. Mohammad Ali Salehinejad et al; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in ADHD: A Systematic Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Protocol-induced Electrical Field Modeling Results. Neurosci Bull. 2020 Oct;36(10):1191-1212. doi: 10.1007/s12264-020-00501-x. Epub 2020 May 16.PMID: 32418073. PMCID: PMC7532240.
    4. Mohammad Ali Salehinejad et al; Transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of neuropsychological deficits. PLoS One. 2019; 14(4): e0215095. Published online 2019 Apr 12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215095.PMID: 30978259. PMCID: PMC6461252
    5. Cachoeira C. T. et al. (2017). Positive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a pilot randomized controlled study. Psychiatry Res. 247 28–32. 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.11.009.

Study: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as an Approach to Mitigate Neurodevelopmental Disorders Affecting Excitation/Inhibition Balance: Focus on Autism Spectrum Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed as a promising therapy for rehabilitation of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we discuss studies on the impact of tDCS as a therapy for autism, schizophrenia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, as well as the tDCS’ mechanism of action, and propose future paths of research to optimize tDCS treatment protocols. The mechanism underlying tDCS effects is the modulation of excitatory and/or inhibitory activity, making it a valuable tool for restoring the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance which is disrupted in many neurodevelopmental disorders. Clinical studies have shown that tDCS therapy is well-tolerated by patients and seems to ameliorate behavior and cognitive functions. Alterations in early development of neuronal circuits lead to disruptions in brain activity in neurodevelopmental disorders. An increasing amount of research into the effects of tDCS on neuronal activity has provided a foundation for its use as a therapy for behavior and cognitive characteristics of neurodevelopmental disorders. Clinical studies show that tDCS appears to ameliorate behavioral and cognitive outcomes of patients with autism, schizophrenia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

REFERENCE

  1. Beatriz Sousa et al; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as an Approach to Mitigate Neurodevelopmental Disorders Affecting Excitation/Inhibition Balance: Focus on Autism Spectrum Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Clin Med. 2022 May; 11(10): 2839. Published online 2022 May 18. doi: 10.3390/jcm11102839PMID: 35628965. PMCID: PMC9143428

These statements have not been evaluated or approved by the FDA. All of the statements made on this document are not anecdotal and have been taken directly from clinical data.